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Preparation, optimization and characterization of foam from white-flesh and yellow-flesh cassava (Manihot esculenta) for powder production

Cassava foam, another form in which cassava may potentially be used as food, was produced from the pulp of
yellow-flesh and white-flesh cassava varieties by whipping with foaming agent (20 %w/w glycerol monostearate
colloid, GMS) and stabilizer (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, NaCMC). Cassava foaming was optimized for
concentration of foaming agent, stabilizer and whipping time. Using Box-Behnken experimental design, two
responses were measured: foam expansion (FE, %) and foam density (FD, g/mL). White-flesh cassava pulp required
14.97% GMS, 0.51% NaCMC and 2.07 min to give a foam of 52.63% expansion and density of 0.75 g/mL.
Yellow-flesh cassava pulp required 14.29% GMS, 0.6% NaCMC and 2 min to yield a foam of 48.25% expansion
and density of 0.76 g/mL. Predicted optimal FE and FD were 54.9% and 0.73 g/mL for white-flesh cassava foam,
and 49.86% and 0.73 g/mL for yellow-flesh cassava foam, respectively, and are close to validated values. The
optimal foams were quite stable after 4 h at 25 ± 2 °C, with low volume collapse of 1.79% and 1.26% for white
and yellow cassava foams, respectively. The optimal cassava foams were dried into foam powder. There was
significant difference in color values (L*, a*, b*, C*, E*, H*, % W, Eyellow white) and total carotenoids content of
pulp, optimal foam, and powder of both varieties. Microstructure analysis of the optimal foams revealed round
air bubbles and positive skewed distribution of bubble sizes. Foaming and drying significantly reduced total
cyanogenic potential in cassava, and may be considered as processing operations capable of reducing cyanogenic
potential in cassava considerably.

Oluwatoyin Ayetigbo, Sajid Latif, Adebayo Abass, Joachim Müller
Food Hydrocolloids