Urban green space dynamics and socio-environmental inequity: multi-resolution and spatiotemporal data analysis of Kumasi, Ghana
Urban green spaces (UGS) are crucial for urban sustainability and resilience to environmental vulnerabilities but are often relegated in cities in the global south. This article analysed the spatio-temporal change, composition, extent, and distributional inequities associated with UGS in Kumasi, Ghana. Spatial techniques and Gini index were combined in the assessment. Kumasi UGS coverage is currently 33% but declined fourfold faster in recent years (2009–2014) than previously (1986–2002). The overall accuracy of the change maps: 1986–2014 and 2009–2014 were, respectively, 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.97 ± 0.02. The Shannon entropy for built-up sprawl in 1986 and 2014 were 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. The UGS area per capita for 2009 (R2 = 0.50, p = 0.049) and 2014 (R2 = 0.53, p = 0.0398) were moderately correlated with socioeconomic conditions of sub-metropolises. The Gini coefficient for both vegetation and tree cover was 0.26. UGS cover is plummeting and somewhat unevenly distributed across Kumasi. Strategic planning for UGS can ensure ample availability, equity in access, and resilience to climate-related vulnerabilities.