Production et Stockage
Le champ «Production et stockage» met l’accent sur l’amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire par l’intensification durable de la production agricole et la réduction des pertes après récolte.
La production agricole et la gestion après récolte sont deux piliers importants qui soutiennent la sécurité alimentaire car elles peuvent assurer un approvisionnement constant en matières premières. Compte tenu de la pression démographique croissante et des ressources limitées, notamment en Afrique, il est indispensable de mener des activités de recherche et de sensibilisation sur la manière d’améliorer la sécurité alimentaire au cours des prochaines décennies, parallèlement à une utilisation plus durable des ressources naturelles. Les facteurs importants à prendre en compte sont l’utilisation efficace de l’eau et des engrais, la gestion adéquate des ravageurs et des maladies et les moyens de réduire les pertes après récolte, représentant 30 à 50% des pertes de production alimentaire dans le monde. Par conséquent, il faut une perspective systémique solide sur la production agricole qui tienne compte des problèmes de ressources et de consommation, tels que le potentiel de changements dans l’alimentation humaine ou la réduction des déchets et des pertes alimentaires.
Ce champ thématique comporte des contributions associées à:
- Quantifier et combler les écarts de rendement et de biomasse
- Améliorer l’efficacité de l’utilisation des ressources (intensification durable)
- Réduire les pertes après récolte
Coordinateur de thème: Amit Kumar Srivastava
Jatta Raymond, Kwapong Nana Afranaa, Bertrand Nero and Benjamin Abugri. 2020. Biomass-Based Innovationsin Demand Driven Research and Development Projects in Africa. FARA Research Report - Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) (Volume 5 No: 22 ): 1-37 pp.
The case for demand-driven research and development has received important considerations among governments, donors and programme implementing partners in development planning and implementation. Addressing demand is generally follows a bottom-up approach in designing appropriate response towards specific development outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the concept and application of demand driven research for development (DDRD) in Africa. We use evidence from six projects that are implemented under the BiomassWeb Project in Africa. We focus on variables that defines stakeholder’s engagement, especially stakeholders that are on the demand side for technologies; the processes for demand articulation; capacity building, implementation processes, innovativeness of the project, reporting and sustainability of the project. We find that the nature of the institutions involved in demand articulation and implementation of research action influenced the outcome of the project. The quality of partnership that was developed also contributed significantly to the final impact of the project.
Srivastava Amit Kumar, Mboh Cho Miltin, Gaiser Thomas, Ewert Frank. 2016. Impact of climatic variables on the spatial and temporal variability ofcrop yield and biomass gap in Sub-Saharan Africa- a case study inCentral Ghana. Elsevier
We investigated the impact of climate variables on yield and biomass gap variability in two humid topi-cal regions, Brong-Ahafo and Ashanti region, of central Ghana using the crop model LINTUL5 embedded into a general modeling framework, SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact Assessment and Modelling Platform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem Management). The simulations were run using a late maturity maize variety (Obatanpa) and historical weather data (1992–2007) across the 18 districts of the regions studied. The simulated maize yield and biomass production under water-limited conditions varied spatially which was significantly correlated with the solar radiation and precipitation in the crop growing period , whereas, associated temporal variability in the simulated maize yield was significantly correlated with the radiation in the crop growing period.
Akinwale T E, Niniola D M, Abass A B, Shittu T A, Adebowale A A, Awoyale W, Awonorin S O, Adewuyi S, Eromosele C O. 2017. Screening of some cassava starches for their potential applications in custard and salad cream productions. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization
Custard powder and salad cream are two food products commercially manufactured using different quantities of corn starch. This study aimed at determining the physicochemical properties of some starches extracted from some white and yellow root cassava varieties. The
prospective applicability of the cassava starches in custard powder and salad cream production was also determined. The physical, chemical and functional properties of eight cassava starches were determined using standard analytical procedures. Sensory acceptability of the products was also determined using untrained consumer group. Products made from corn starch were used as the reference samples. The physical, chemical and functional properties of the cassava
starches varied significantly (p < 0.05). The results of multivariate data analysis (principal component and cluster analyses) showed that it was difficult to completely discriminate starches from the yellow fleshed and white fleshed cassava roots. Texture was the most important sensory attribute determining the two products’ acceptability. Starch powder dispersibility was found to have significant influence (p < 0.05) on the sensory acceptability of the two
products. However, starch from a yellow fleshed root (TMS 01/1368) was the most preferred for salad cream making while starch from a white fleshed root (TMS 30572) was the most preferred for making custard powder. The starches showed high potential to replace corn starch for the respective product manufacture.
Christine B. Schmitt, Daniel Kisangau and Kennedy W. Matheka. 2019. Tree diversity in a human modified riparian forest landscape in semi-arid Kenya. Forest Ecology and Management (433): 645-655 pp.
West Paul C, Gerber James S, Engstrom Peder M, Mueller Nathaniel D, Brauman Kate A, Carlson Kimberly M, Cassidy Emily S, Johnston Matt, MacDonald Graham K, Ray Deepak K, Siebert Stefan. 2014. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. Science
Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity’s contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key “global leverage points” that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens’ groups, and businesses prioritize actions.
Virchow Detlef, Denich Manfred.2014.Phosphorus declining availability in an emerging bio-economy.European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform.
The emerging bio-economy encompasses all sectors that produce, process or use biological
resources in whatever form, focusing accordingly on food and non-food biomass.
Trawally D.M.A, Webber H, Agyare W A, Fosu M, Naab J, Gaiser Thomas. 2015. Modelling heat stress effect on two maize varieties in Northern Region of Ghana. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science
Agriculture in Ghana accounts for more than 30% of GDP and three-quarters of export earnings. In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is predicted to affect the agricultural sector most. The objectives of this study were: to use the SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modelling Platform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) to simulate maize yield under heat stress. To compare SIMPLACE model output with heat stress, and without heat stress. Finally simulate the effect of heat stress on maize yield depending on the sowing date. The study collected and analysed data from field experiments during the 2012/2013 dry season and repeated in 2014 at Botanga irrigation site and the 2014 rainy season at Gbulahagu farming community based on three (3) sowing dates (SD). Comparing the SIMPLACE model output to the observed field data, the duration of development phases were predicted with acceptable accuracy among the three sowing dates. Simulated and observed showed good agreement for maize biomass at several growth stages of the maize. The heat stress component of SIMPLACE gave a good prediction for yield under heat stress when no other stress (water, nutrients) occurred. The estimations of the final yield showed an over estimation when the model was run with no heat stress condition in the rainy season experiment in particular under nutrient stress. The model was successfully parameterized and evaluated for simulating the effect of heat stress on maize yield under no nutrient and drought stress and can therefore be used as a research tool in the study area.
Socio-ecological Change in Rural Ethiopia.
Understanding Local Dynamics in Environmental Planning and Natural Resource Management
Siebert Stefan, Ewert Frank. 2014. Future crop production threatened by extreme heat. Environmental Research Letters
Heat is considered to be a major stress limiting crop growth and yields. While important findings on the impact of heat on crop yield have been made based on experiments in controlled environments, little is known about the effects under field conditions at larger scales. The study of Deryng et al (2014 Global crop yield response to extreme heat stress under multiple climate change futures Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034011), analysing the impact of heat stress on maize, spring wheat and soya bean under climate change, represents an important contribution to this emerging research field. Uncertainties in the occurrence of heat stress under field conditions, plant responses to heat and appropriate adaptation measures still need further investigation.