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Jatta Raymond, Kwapong Nana Afranaa, Bertrand Nero and Benjamin Abugri. 2020. Biomass-Based Innovationsin Demand Driven Research and Development Projects in Africa. FARA Research Report - Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) (Volume 5 No: 22 ): 1-37 pp.

The case for demand-driven research and development has received important considerations   among   governments, donors   and   programme   implementing   partners   in development planning and implementation. Addressing demand is generally follows a bottom-up approach in designing appropriate response towards specific development outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the concept and application of demand driven research for development (DDRD) in Africa. We use evidence from six projects that are implemented under the BiomassWeb Project in Africa. We focus on variables that defines stakeholder’s engagement, especially stakeholders that are on the demand side for technologies; the processes for demand articulation; capacity building, implementation processes, innovativeness of the project, reporting and sustainability of the project. We find that the nature of the institutions involved in demand articulation and implementation of research action influenced the outcome of the project. The quality of partnership that was developed also contributed significantly to the final impact of the project.

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Legese Getachew, van Assche Kristof, Stellmacher Till, Tekleworld Hailemariam, Kelboro Girma. 2018. Land for food or power? Risk governance of dams and family farms in Southwest Ethiopia. Elsevier

We use the concepts of riskscapes and risk governance to analyze the tensions between land use for food (farms) and energy (dams) in Southwest Ethiopia. We analyze the linkages between risk perception, risk assessment and risk management for local and non-local actors. We distinguish, after empirical analysis, as main riskscapes the riskscapes of landlessness, food and energy insecurity and siltation. For the Ethiopian case, and more generally, we reflect on the potential of spatial planning as a site of risk governance, where risk perception, assessment and management can be discussed in their linkages, where different actor-related and topical riskscapes can encounter, can be deliberated and result in policy integration. We finally reflect on the ethical implications of our perspective and reconsider the idea of social cost.

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Frank Susanne, Fürst Christine, Pietzsch Frank. 2015. Cross-Sectoral Resource Management: How Forest Management Alternatives Affect the Provision of Biomass and Other Ecosystem Services. Forests

Integrated forest management is faced with the challenge that the contribution of forests to economic and ecological planning targets must be assessed in a socio-ecological system context. This paper introduces a way to model spatio-temporal dynamics of biomass production at a regional scale in order to derive land use strategies that enhance biomass provision and avoid trade-offs for other ecosystem services. The software platform GISCAME was employed to bridge the gap between local land management decisions and regional planning by linking growth and yield models with an integrative mesoscale modeling and assessment approach. The model region is located in Saxony, Germany. Five scenarios were simulated, which aimed at testing different alternatives for adapted land use in the context of climate change and increasing biomass demand. The results showed, for example, that forest conversion towards climate-change-adapted forest types had positive effects on ecological integrity and landscape aesthetics. In contrast, negative impacts on landscape aesthetics must be expected if agricultural sites were converted into short rotation coppices. Uncertainties with stem from assumptions regarding growth and yield models were discussed. Future developmental steps which consider, for example, accessibility of the resources were identified.

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Callo-Concha D, Denich M, Lamers J P A, Schwachula A, Hornidge A K, Khamzina A, Borgemeister C. 2016. Bridging science and development: lessons learnt from two decades of development research. Agroforestry Systems

This paper presents the theoretical, operational and implementation premises that guide the
development research agenda of the Center of Development Research (ZEF), exemplified by three agroforestry-related case studies. First, the importance, assumptions, conditions and priorities for development research in the context of developing countries are reviewed. Second, the three core premises of ZEF’s research approach, (1) transdisciplinary to carry out research on real-life problems, (2) symmetrical partnerships with local stakeholders to sustain ground
activities and ensure implementation, and (3) capacity development to warrant future competences, are exposed. Third, these premises are exemplified and mirrored in three agroforestry-related case-studies: (1) slash-and-burn agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon,
(2) socio-ecological management of coffee-agroforests in Ethiopia, and (3) afforestation with multipurpose tree species in Uzbekistan. The paper concludes by streamlining the theoretical and practical premises exposed with the presented case-studies, and confirming how these have guided ZEF in the planning, implementation and continuation of development research programs. Although ZEF’s approach to development research is dynamic and continuously subject to assessment, its core remains guiding even after two decades of implementation, appearing to be a suitable pathway for reaching development objectives.

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West Paul C, Gerber James S, Engstrom Peder M, Mueller Nathaniel D, Brauman Kate A, Carlson Kimberly M, Cassidy Emily S, Johnston Matt, MacDonald Graham K, Ray Deepak K, Siebert Stefan. 2014. Leverage points for improving global food security and the environment. Science

Achieving sustainable global food security is one of humanity’s contemporary challenges. Here we present an analysis identifying key “global leverage points” that offer the best opportunities to improve both global food security and environmental sustainability. We find that a relatively small set of places and actions could provide enough new calories to meet the basic needs for more than 3 billion people, address many environmental impacts with global consequences, and focus food waste reduction on the commodities with the greatest impact on food security. These leverage points in the global food system can help guide how nongovernmental organizations, foundations, governments, citizens’ groups, and businesses prioritize actions.

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Webber Heidi, Gaiser Thomas, Ewert Frank. 2014. What role can crop models play in supporting climate change adaptation decisions to enhance food security in Sub-Saharan Africa?. Agricultural Systems

In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) efforts to achieve food security are challenged by poverty, low soil fertility, unequal global trade relationships, population growth, weak institutions and infrastructure, and future climate changes and variability. Crop models are the primary tools available to assess the impacts of climate change and other drivers on crop productivity, a key aspect of food security. This review examines their role and suitability for informing climate change adaptation decisions in the SSA context. Perception of climate change is rarely the only factor leading to changed farming practices, with labor availability, recent extreme climatic events (floods or droughts) and access to formal credit, constituting the main factors farmers respond to. Further, farmers’ socio-economic status constrains the adaptations they make in response to these drivers. Many crop modeling studies reviewed investigating climate change adaptation currently do not capture many of these drivers, adaptations nor constraints. However, a number of areas were identified where crop models could aid in adaptations decision-making. For instance, crop models can: test which changes farmers are making are most robust to future climate scenarios; be used as tools for experimentation in farmer organizations to build farmer capacity, minimize risk and empower farmers; be linked to economic, farm systems or livestock models to widen the scope of potential impacts, adaptations and farmer constraints considered, and to probe the interactions of cropping systems with other systems; and evaluate various indicators of resilience. Finally it is suggested that one of the greatest benefits of linking crop models across disciplines and in integrated assessment frameworks may be providing a platform to bring specialists and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds together to assess climate change adaptation options to enhance food security in SSA.

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Virchow Detlef, Beuchelt Tina, Denich Manfred, Loos Tim K, Hoppe Marlene, Kuhn Arnim. 2014. The value web approach so that the South can also benefit from the bioeconomy. Rural 21

The rising demand for biomass is transforming agriculture from a food to a complex biomass-supplying and -processing sector, which the countries of the South could benefit from. New prospects could arise for them to go beyond their role of pure raw material suppliers. However, a value chain approach is insufficient in this context. The biomassbased value web appears to offer an alternative approach.

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